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  • Trichogramma

Technical Information

View FileTrichogramma Technical Information (322.25 KB)

Care & Release

These wasps will arrive still developing either on hanging cards or loose in a container. They will emerge within 1-3 days of shipment and should be released as soon as some adults begin to emerge. Release in the evening by placing container or hanging cards on or near plants where moths have been seen, out of direct sunlight. If ants are present, suspend container from plants (using thread) to avoid them feeding on eggs. Store in refrigerator with 60-80% humidity for up to 3 days, although refrigeration may cause some mortality.

Trichogramma planteri

Target Pests: Several species of moths, including cabbage looper, codling moth, oriental fruit moth, twig borers and fruit worms. This product is best for moth control in an orchard or tall crop setting, meaning over the 8-10 foot range.

Description: Trichogramma is a minute parasitic wasp that attacks the eggs over 150 species of moths including cabbage looper, codling moth, oriental fruit moth, twig borers and fruit worms. Adults are less than 1/25 in. (1 mm) long. Larvae develop entirely inside the eggs of moths. The eggs darken when they are parasitized.

Use in Biological Control: Several different species of Trichogramma are used in North American crops. For greenhouse crops use T. pretiosum. In orchards and field crops use T. minutum in the east and T. platneri in the west. New species such as T. sibericum are being used in greenhouse trials.

Optimum conditions are moderate temperatures of 68-81 ºF (20-27 ºC) and relative humidity 60%.  Moth species that lay eggs in clusters are more easily controlled using Trichogramma than those that lay eggs singly.

Life Cycle: A complete life cycle takes 14 days at 70oF (21oC). Sex ratio in the population is about equal (50% females).  Mated females lay about 60-70 eggs in moth eggs over a period of 1-2 weeks. Most Trichogramma eggs are laid within 1-2 days of mating. Larvae take 10 days to develop within the moth egg, which turns brown or black as the larvae pupate.  Adults begin to emerge within 2-3 days at 68-81 ºF (20-27 ºC) and over 60% relative humidity. They chew a small hole in the moth egg to emerge. Males emerge slightly earlier and await female emergence for mating. Adults can feed on nectar, honeydew, and pollen.

Total life span may be 7-75 days depending upon temperature, relative humidity and species of moth parasitized. There may be 30 or more generations per season. 

Product Information: Trichogramma is shipped as parasitized moth eggs fixed to cardboard sheets. Each sheet holds about 125,000 Trichogramma. The sheets are perforated into 30 small squares, each with 4,000-5,000 Trichogramma. Carefully tear the sheets along the perforations and either distribute them immediately throughout the crop or hold them in containers with food until the adults begin to emerge. 

Using Pesticides: Pesticide compatibility has not been evaluated for Trichogramma, but it is likely that the same recommendations would apply as for Encarsia formosa. Kinoprene (Enstar®) and fenbutatin oxide (Vendex ®) should be safe to use. Most fungicides and plant growth regulators should not be harmful. Spreader stickers may be harmful and high volume sprays of any pesticide may drown adult Trichogramma. 

Introduction Rates: General introduction rates is 22 Trichogramma per m² once a week until caterpillar populations are controlled; or 22,000 wasps per 10,000 ft2 (1000 m2 ) per week.

Use in Greenhouses: Introduction rates for greenhouses should be considered experimental. In greenhouse tomatoes, monthly releases of 875,000- 950,000 Trichogramma per hectare or 350,000-380,000 Trichogramma per acre gave 80% control of cabbage loopers after three months. All releases should be made weekly at the first sign of moths, while ensuring that the Trichogramma are distributed evenly throughout the greenhouses. Continue a regular weekly release for at least 4 weeks or until control is achieved.

Greenhouse tomatoes: 22 Trichogramma per 10 ft², weekly

Greenhouse sweet peppers: 1-10 Trichogramma per10 ft², weekly Use in Outdoor Crops: Regularly releasing Trichogramma ensures that mated females are always present to attack moth eggs. Releases should start as soon as moths are first detected. They can be either seen flying or trapped in pheromone lure traps.

Field crops: 100,000-300,000 per acre (250,000- 750,000 per hectare) over three weeks or evenly spread out over the egg laying period of the target pest Codling moth in orchards: 50,000-100,000 per acre (125,000-250,000/hectare) spread over three weeks, as soon as moths are detected in traps

Home gardens: 12,000 weekly for each of 3 weeks. In orchards, place some Trichogramma at the base of each infested tree. Releasing a percentage of the Trichogramma upwind may encourage their natural spread through the orchard. Trichogramma can be released in large numbers using an aircraft fitted with special Venturi tubes. Release in early morning or late afternoon, particularly where the plant canopy does not cover the ground.

Availability: In stock

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Note: The deadline for Trichogramma orders is at 11:00 am Fridays of each week, for shipment the following week.

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